Decode web programming: Front-End, Back-End and Full Stack

Tram Ho

Web programming for me is a passion, inspiration. But I used to play with, wandering about where to start while I was just a poor student from a small town coming to Saigon to study at university, where did I get the money to attend classes at the training center.

I search for information from any medium, books, friends, internet …

In the beginning, there are thousands of questions: where do you need to learn web programming ?, what language to learn web programming ?, …

But it seems that very few articles or books clearly state the top of the industry and many are lacking and misleading information.

Hopefully with this article you will understand what you need to do to become a web programmer (Front-End, Back-End or Full Stack).

1. Website, web application


In the old days, when the Internet was rudimentary, the web was written in single html. Every single web page is written in html called a Web Page. Gather many single websites, into a big website, with the same domain name, called the Website.

Websites only include text, images and videos, linked together through links. The effect of website is to store and display information. Users can only read, view and click links to move between pages.

Web application

Later, with the advent of server languages: CGI, Perl, PHP, … websites became more “dynamic”, able to interact with users. From here, users can use the web to “do a certain job using a computer”, so the web app was born.

Understandably, web apps are applications that run on the web. Through the web app, users can perform a number of tasks: calculating, sharing photos, shopping … The interactivity of the web app is much higher than the website.

And for a website to work, there are three basic components: Source Code, Web hosting and domain.

Source Code:

Website software built by programmers. This part is like the blueprints, building materials, interior and exterior equipment of the house.

Web hosting:

Used to store the source code. This component is similar to the land where you can build the house. As a hosting service on the server or you are rich enough to use the server for your website.

Is your site hosted on a server along with many other websites? Typically, these websites share resources from the server such as RAM and CPU.

Domain (Domain):

Website address for computers on the point where they want to access the website. Domain names act like home addresses, based on which other people can come to visit your home.


A dedicated server (Server) gives you complete control over the server on which you place the website – You are free to use it and can rent it to other users. Your website is the only site on the server if you want.

2. Website programming, web application.

To become a website or web application developer, you need to know some of the following:

First web divided into 2 main components: Front-End, Back-End.

You can choose to do Front-End programming, Back-End programming or Full Stack programming (which is programming both Front-End and Back-End).


The front-end part of a web page is the user interaction part. Everything you see when navigating the Internet, from fonts, colors, images to drop-down menus and sliders, is a combination of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript controlled by browser your computer.


So what makes the front-end of a website work? Where will all the data be stored? That’s the back end’s work. The back end of a web page consists of a server, an application, and a database. A back-end developer builds and maintains the technology that powers those components, allowing the user interface of the site to exist.

3. Front-End Programming

To become a Front-End Developer (Developer Front-End), you need to master 3 main languages: HTML, CSS, and JavaScript programming language. Familiar with frameworks like Bootstrap, Foundation, Backbone, AngularJS, and EmberJS, to make sure content is always displayed well on all different devices, and libraries like jQuery and LESS, encapsulating the code into a help form. Save time and be more useful. A lot of front-end developer work also requires experience with Ajax, a technique widely used by using JavaScript to allow pages to load automatically by loading server data in the background.

Start learning


Html stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It helps users to create and structure elements in web pages or applications, divide paragraphs, headings, links, blockquotes …

HTML is not a programming language, meaning it cannot create “dynamic” functions. It is just like Microsoft Word, used to layout and format web pages.

When learning HTML you need to pay attention:

  • Learn the basics and how to write HTML
  • Understand how to break a page into sections and how to structure the DOM properly.


  • Try building any html page. Although it is not as beautiful as the websites we often see it, but it is important that we go to the layout structure. And try to remember lots of HTML tags.

CSS is the style language for websites – Cascading Style Sheet language. It is used to style and style elements that are written in markup languages, such as HTML. It can control the format of multiple websites at the same time to save effort for web writers. It distinguishes the look of a web page from its main content by controlling the layout, colors, and fonts.


  • After maximizing the page size with html, try to use it more css to make it more beautiful and more organized.

CSS Frameworks

CSS Frameworks: Bootstrap, Bulma …

But in fact, you should choose Bootstrap to start, it supports very well and is widely used by Development.


JavaScript is a scripting language that allows you to create dynamic web pages – contextual content updates, multimedia controls, animations of images and more. (Not everything, of course, but with just a few lines of code, JavaScript can do incredible things.)

JavaScript allows you to make your HTML pages more interactive. For example, when you log in to a successful website, you receive a notice of successful login. That is made up of javascript

After learning 3 main languages ​​(Html, CSS, Javascript), now that you have enough ability to learn the framework, you should choose 1 frameworl to start, do not worry about choosing a framework because when you have If you are familiar with Html, CSS and Javascript, you will be thinking enough to start a framework. When mastering a framework, the following framework will also become easy for you.

4. Back-End Programming

To become a Back-End developer, you can choose to study one or more of the following languages: Java, .NET, PHP, Python or Ruby, … In addition, due to the constant work required to manipulate data Data, so Back-end Developer also need to have knowledge of SQL and database management systems such as MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server … these are popular database management systems today.


SQL stands for Structured Query Language meaning structured query language, which is a computer language for storing, manipulating and retrieving data stored in a relational database.

5. Full Stack

There is often no clear distinction between Front-End development and Back-End development. Front-End programmers often need to learn more Back-End skills, and vice versa, Back-End developers often need to learn Front-End skills.

But when you do Full-Stack, requires your knowledge is good at both Front-End and Back-End and your salary is higher.

6. Summary

Whether Front-End or Back-End have the basic parts required to master and also have its own parts.

Between frameworks or between languages ​​at Back-End, you should strongly choose a framework, a language to master. By the time you get to work, you will have enough knowledge to do what you have learned or have enough thinking to start easily with a new one.

Choose and walk, do not hesitate, do not step in place, if you go wrong, you can step back, otherwise you just stand still.

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Source : Viblo