The primary responsibility of a manager is to secure and use resources (people, software, hardware, etc.) to implement value-added processes.
For software and IT managers, processes are part of a project or program intended to provide software or systems for internal or external use.
For Test Managers, processes are those related to testing, namely the activities of the basic testing procedure described in the Grassroots curriculum.
Because inspection processes only add value by contributing to the overall success of the project or program (or by preventing a more serious type of failure), the test manager must plan and control the process. fit test.
In other words, test management should streamline test cases of procedures, including related activities and tasks, according to the needs and circumstances of other stakeholders, activities. their actions (e.g., software development life cycle in testing as they occur) and their work products (e.g. specifications required).
1, Understanding of the parties involved in testing
Stakeholders in the testing process when they are interested in the testing activities, the test work products or the quality of the system can eventually be delivered to the customer.
The interests of stakeholders may be direct or indirect participation in testing activities, direct or indirect receipt of test work products or direct or indirect effect on the quality of products created by a project or program. Although the stakeholders are different, depending on the project, product, organization and other factors, they may include the following roles:
- Developers, development leaders and development managers. Stakeholders who are implementing the software are testing, receiving test results, and often have to act on those results. (e.g., corrected reported errors).
- Database architects, system architects and designers. Stakeholders in software design, receive test results and often take action on those results.
- Marketing and business analysts. Stakeholders determine the features and level of quality inherent in those features, which must be in the software. They are also often involved in determining the required test scope, reviewing test results, and making decisions based on test results.
- Senior management, product management and project sponsors. Stakeholders are often involved in defining the required scope of the test, reviewing the test results, and making decisions based on the test results.
- Project management. Stakeholders are responsible for managing their projects for success, requiring a balance between quality, progress, features and budgeting. They often purchase the resources needed for inspection activities and collaborate with the Test Manager in control and control plans.
- Technical support, customer support and support staff. Stakeholders support users and customers who benefit from the features and quality of distributed software. Users directly and indirectly. These stakeholders use direct software (that is, they are end users) or receive outputs or services produced or supported by the software.
This list of stakeholders is not complete. Test managers must identify test stakeholders specific to their project or program.
The inspection manager must also understand the exact nature of the relationship between the parties involved in the audit and how the inspection team serves the needs of the parties involved.
In addition to identifying test stakeholders as described above, Test Manager should identify other software development life cycle activities and work products that affect testing and / or affected by inspection.
Without this, the testing process may not achieve optimum efficiency
2, Software development activities and life cycle
Because software testing is an evaluation of the quality of one or more work products produced outside of testing activities, it often exists in the context of a software development life cycle larger than the activities. .
Test managers must plan and guide inspection activities with an understanding of how other activities and their work products influence the inspection, as discussed in the curriculum. Foundation and how testing affects other activities and their work products.
For example, in organizations that use Agile development practices, developers often perform test development, create automated unit tests, and continually integrate code (along with those code tests) into the system. configuration management system.
Test manager should work with the development manager to ensure that testers are integrated and associated with these activities.
Testers can review unit tests to contribute recommendations to increase the coverage and effectiveness of these tests and to gain a deeper understanding of the software and its implementation.
Testers can evaluate ways to integrate their own automated tests, especially functional regression testing, into the configuration management system. Although the specific relationship between test activities and other test stakeholders, work activities in the software development life cycle and work products vary depending on the project, development life cycle. Software development is closely linked and involves the following factors:
- Technical requirements and management. The inspection manager should review the requirements in the process of identifying and estimating testing efforts, as well as being aware of changes to the requirements and taking inspection control actions to adjust. following those changes. Technical test analyst and test analyst should take part in required evaluation.
- Project management. The test manager, working with the Test Analyst and Technical Test Analyst, must provide the schedule and resource requirements to the Project Manager. The test manager must work with the project manager to understand the changes in the project plan and take control control actions to adjust to those changes.
- Configuration management, release management, and change management. Test management, working with the testing team, must establish procedures and mechanisms for distributing test subjects and capture the procedures in the test plan. The test manager may require the Test Analyst and Technical Test Analyst to create verification verification tests and to ensure version control during the test execution.
- Software development and maintenance. Test managers should work with the Development Manager to coordinate the distribution of test objects, including the content and date of each test release, as well as participate in error management.
- Technical assistance. The test manager should work with the technical support manager to ensure that the test results are delivered properly during the test closure process so that the product support people after release are aware of the bugs. and known workarounds. In addition, the Manager test should work with the technical support manager to analyze production errors to implement test process improvements.
- Producing technical documents. Test managers should work with technical document management to ensure timely provision of documents, as well as management of errors found in those documents.
- In addition to identifying test stakeholders as described above, test management must identify other software development life cycle activities and work products that affect testing and / or being affected. enjoy by testing. Otherwise, the testing process will not achieve optimum efficiency and effectiveness.
3. Arrange testing activities and some life cycles of the typical models
Testing must be an integral part of the project, regardless of the software development models used. This includes:
- Sequential models, such as waterfall models, V models, and W models. In a sequential model, all products and work activities in a given period (for example, requirements , design, implementation, unit testing, integration testing, system testing and acceptance testing) to be completed before the next phase begins. Test planning, test analysis, test design and test execution are conducted in a manner that overlaps with project planning, business / requirements analysis, software and database design. and programming, with the exact nature of the overlap depending on the level of testing.
- Repetitive or incremental models, such as Rapid Application Development (RAD) and Rational Unified Process (RUP). In an iterative or incremental model, implemented features are grouped together (for example, by priority or business risk) and then different project phases, including products and their workflow, occurring for each feature group. Stages can be performed sequentially or in an overlapping fashion, and the iterations themselves can be sequential or overlapping. During project start-up, high-level test planning and test analysis occurs in parallel with project planning and business / requirements analysis.
Detailed test planning, test analysis, test design, and test execution occur at the beginning of each iteration, in an overlapping fashion.
Testing done usually involves overlapping test levels. Each test level begins as soon as possible and can continue afterward, higher test levels have begun.
- Agile, such as SCRUM and Programming (XP). These are repeated life cycles in which the loops are very short (usually from two to four weeks). The work and activity products for each iteration are terminated before the next iteration begins (that is, the iterations are sequential). The test is similar to replicated models, but with a higher degree of overlap of different testing activities with development activities, including significant overlap of performance tests (at different levels) with development activities. All operations in one iteration, including test operations, must be completed before the next iteration begins.
In an Agileproject, the role of the Test Manager often changes from the direct management role to the technical advisory / competence role.
- Spiral. In the spiral model, prototypes are used early in the project to validate feasibility and test design and implementation decisions, using business priorities and technical risks to select what do your own prototyping experiments. These prototypes are tested to identify aspects of unresolved technical issues. When major technical issues are addressed, the project proceeds in a sequential or repetitive manner.
To correctly align lifecycle inspection activities, test managers must have a detailed understanding of the life cycle models used in their organization. For example, in model V,
ISTQB basic test process applied to system test level can be adjusted as follows:
- System test planning activities occur concurrently with project planning and test control that continues until the test is completed and the test system is closed.
- System testing and analysis activities occur concurrently with the requirements specification, system and architecture design specification (high level), and component design specification (low level).
- System test deployment activities can begin during the system design process, although most of these activities often occur concurrently with coding and component testing, with the work of performing the checks. The system usually lasts until a few days before starting the system test.
- System test operations start when all system test entry criteria are met (or abandoned), which usually means at least component testing and often integration testing. The composition is also complete. Execute the system test continues until the system test exit criteria are met.
- Evaluate the system test exit criteria and report the system test results that occur during the system test, generally with a higher frequency and urgency when approaching the scheduled deadlines. judgment.
- System shutdown operations occur after the system test exit criteria are met and the system test is completed, although they can sometimes be delayed until the end of the test. try acceptance and all project activities end.
- In an iterative or incremental cycle, similar tasks must be performed but the time and level may vary. For example, instead of being able to perform the entire test environment at the beginning of the project, it may be more effective to only execute the parts needed for the current iteration. With any iterative or incremental life cycle model, the further the planning goes, the further the scope of the basic test process can expand.
In addition to the planning stages that occur for each project, the performance of audits and reporting may also be affected by the life cycle being used by the team.
For example, in the iteration life cycle, it may be effective to generate a complete report and perform post-iterative evaluation sessions before starting the next iteration.
By treating each iteration as a small project, the team will have the opportunity to correct and adjust based on what happened in the previous iteration.
Because iterations can be short and time is limited, it is possible to abbreviate the time and effort devoted to this report and evaluation, but tasks should be conducted as a way to monitor progress. Overall test and identify any problems as quickly as possible.
Experienced process problems in one iteration can easily affect and even recur in the next iteration if corrective actions are not applied.
Depending on the needs of the organization, the project and the product, additional levels of testing beyond those defined in the Grassroots curriculum may be required, such as:
- Software-software integration testing
- Testing system integration
- Check out the interactive feature
- Check customer product integration
Each test level should have the following clearly defined elements:
- Test objectives, with achievable targets
- Test range and test items
- Test facility, together with a means of measuring its coverage (i.e. traceability)
- Immigration Criteria The best products, including result reports
- The test techniques applied, along with how to ensure adequate coverage by using them
- Measurements and figures related to test objectives, entry and exit criteria and reporting of results (including insurance measurements)
- Test tools will be applied to specific test tasks (if and if any).
- Resources (e.g. test environment)
- Individuals and groups are responsible, both inside and outside the testing group
- Compliance with organizational standards, regulations or other standards (if and if any)
As discussed later in this chapter, it is best practice to identify these elements coherently in all test levels to avoid wasteful and dangerous gaps on the corresponding test levels. self different.
References: (Advanced Level Syllabus Test Manager -version 2012)