This year, more than 50,000 programmers shared their workplaces, works, and ego with us. The information you are about to read is the result of the most extensive and deep programmer survey ever done.
Every 8 seconds, a programmer will ask a question on Stack Overflow. This year, 56,033 coder in 173 countries responded to this call.
We asked them 45 questions. With some highlights as follows:
Who code? People are all over the world.
In January, 46 million people visited Stack Overflow to seek help or help another programmer. We estimate that 16 million of these are professional programmers.
Evaluate the number of our professional developers from what people read and do when they visit Stack Overflow. We collect user activity data sets to help show things you may find interesting or questions we think you can answer. You can download and delete this information whenever you want.
II. Job programming
Most respondents rated themselves as Full-stack Developers more than any other role. On average, Full-stack developers can code comfortably with 5 to 6 major languages or framework. Executives uses more languages and frameworks than any other programming profession, which is often the result of extensive work experience.
The number of developers who identify themselves as Mobile Developer is approximately the same as Android Mobile Developer (3% for each item). About 2.5% of developers are programming iOS Mobile. We received 59 responses from Windows Phone Mobile Developer (0.1%).
The most popular technology for each type of Dev
III. Programmers, Engineers, and Developers
This year we asked the responders if they were Engineers, Experts, Hackers or any other description we often see in job postings, business cards and Twitter bio.
But Developer is the best choice here. This is also the most chosen item this time.
Rockstars & Ninjas
10% of feedbacks are self-proclaimed Ninja. But the true Ninja will never go boasting about being a ninja. They stealthily stalk and cut your neck, and obviously, those who work around it will place it in the "hostile working environment".
The average age of programmers is 27 years
Average age by country
The average age of Indian programmers is 6 years younger than the average age of programmers in the US. Want to know where developers are? Look at countries like India, Russia, Poland, and Brazil.
The average experience of programmers is 6 and a half years in the IT industry and programming. This does not mean that they have professional experience (Students have an average of 3.4 years of experience). Developers accumulate experience by building products, creating new things, whether they are paying or not paying. We also found that more than 230,000 programmers said they had work experience written on the CV sent to Stack Overflow. Around the world, a Front-End programmer has experience about 3 and a half years. A Full-Stack has about 8 years, and Engineering Manager has about 13 years of experience.
Star Wars vs. Star Trek
We did a small survey to ask developers if they liked Star Wars or Star Trek. Of course, the choice of film also changes with the age. Programmers over 40 will often choose Star Wars. Programmers in their 50s are Star Trek fans, followed by other films like Stargate, Doctor Who or Babylon 5.
Our survey also shows a clear difference between gender in the technology village. In fact, women also play a quite significant role in this segment. According to Quantcast, about 12% of readers of Stack Overflow are female. We also know that this survey does not represent a large number of growing developers in countries like South Korea, India and China.
Rate of female programmers and their careers
Women often work as designers more than other programmers. Very few of them are related to Machine Learning. Moreover, women will often target Quality Assurance more. However, both men and women have equal opportunities to become Executive or Engineer Manager.
Experience based on gender
Experience also varies widely by region and gender.
Gender distribution at age levels
While women account for about 6% of the total number of people interacting with the survey, the fact is that this number is even lower when measured between the ages of 30 and 40. In the field of technology, sex imbalance according to age, it is evident. We also cannot answer the question of the gender gap that exists in the current technology industry. However, we also provided data to the community so that they could analyze and find out why this phenomenon happened. You can follow us on Twitter for more updates.
Who appreciates diversity?
In general, about 73% of programmers tell us, they think that diversity is a very important good factor of the company, 41% choose very important. And programmers who make recruitment decisions often believe in the doctrine of diversity than other types of programmers.
We also received a few feedbacks this year saying that in addition to the general gender diversity, we have a clear understanding of ethnicity / race. That is the point we will definitely consider. What will we ask next year? Please feel free to suggest .
69% of all developers said they were at least partially self-taught. (13% of global responses indicate that they are self-taught.) 43% of developers have a BA or BS in computer science or a similar field. 2% of PhD programmers.
Education changes according to the type of programmer
Machine Learning Developers are components that often go through online classes (Graphics programmers tend to be at least). Enterprise Level Services Developers usually have completed the most important certificate programs (iOS Mobile Developer belongs to the smallest group).
The tools and trends of the trade.
I. The most popular technologies
Some other popular languages
Delphi is the most widely used write-in language / technology, and Typescript is write-in that many programmers want to use.
II. Most loved, most afraid, and most wanted
For two years of integrity, Rust, Swift, and Go entered the top 5 most favorite programming languages. VB tops the list of the most frightening technologies – if it is extinct, there will be no programmers who miss it. Programmers who do not work with Android, Node and Angular also want to try.
III. Top Tech on Stack Overflow
IV. Trending Tech on Stack Overflow
Newer web programming technologies like React, Node.js, and AngularJS are getting more and more used. Swift is similar, and is robbing market share from Objective C. Developer that seems to be abandoning CoffeeScript, Haskell, and Windows Phone. And although the survey shows that many developers want to take Visual Basic and WordPress, these technologies seem to have no sign of cooling off.
V. Top Tech paid the most
Money rain! Cloud technology pays a lot of money. The same technology used in finance. Spark, Scala, Cassandra, and F # top the list of technology that earns the most money. (Not much different from last year.)
Do you consider finding Spark ?
Top Tech spent the most in each field
Developer with mathematical knowledge (including Data Scientists and Machine Learning Developers) knows Scala, Spark or Hadoop is paid a lot of money. Python and R have equal salaries, although Python programmers know twice as much math.
Mobile programming knows about the iOS ecosystem seems to earn an average of $ 10,000 more than Android Developer.
VI. Technologies correlated
Top Tech Stacks in each field
See the stack? Many Full-stack programmers work with PHP more than any other Back-End language (C # and Java closely follows).
63% Data Scientists use Puthon, 44% use R, and 27% use both (14% use Python, R, and SQL).
VII. Programming environment
Last year, we asked you about text editors . This year we expanded the question to cover more IDEs, text editors, and other cool coding tools. The average programmer uses between 2 and 3 programming environments. Top write-ins are WebStorm (1.6%), brackets (.8%), QT Creator (.7%) and Delphi (.4%).
Programming environment for each field
Data Scientist uses Vim & Notepad ++. Full-Stack Developers uses Visual Studio and Sublime. Students use Notepad ++ and Visual Studio.
VIII. Desktop Operating System
Last year, Mac surpassed Linux to become the number two operating system in the programming world. This year, it is clear that this trend has become very clear. If the OS utilization rate remains in this direction, next year's survey will have fewer than 50% of developers using Windows.
Referring to Linux, the Unbuntu ranks among these with 12.3% of the total OS programmer market. Fedora, Mint, and Debian account for 1.4%, 1.7%, and 1.9% respectively.
Programmers want to learn right away at work, do-play balance, and money. But mostly programmers just want code.
I. Employment status
Most developers have jobs. 91% of the workforce programmers are "paid on the job" (either full-time, self-employed, or freelance).
II. Job search
Only 15% of programmers actively seek jobs. But 78% of developers like to consider new career opportunities.
If you are an employer, we want to know what you are to make sure you are able to reach developers who are not actively looking for work .
Who is looking for a new job?
In the United States, students, analysts and Quality Assurance Programmers have the highest rate of active search. Designers, Execs and Machine Learning Developers are less likely to receive information from employers.
III. Discover work
In most countries, referrals from friends are the most popular way of finding developers. Except India.
IV. Priority work
Wages are the most important factor a developer is interested in when evaluating a new job opportunity. But not necessarily the factor they care about most. 37% of programmers don't even add salary to their priority list.
Another interesting point is that German programmers seem less concerned about salary than developers in other countries. American and French programmers seem to have less priority on opportunities than advancement, British programmers are more interested in working places, and Indian programmers prioritize flexible, creative, working hours. Remote work, and title work.
Job opportunities in each field
Different types of programmers prioritize different things. Full-Stack programmer has the highest number of technology priorities. Machine learning developer finds creative, breakthrough jobs. Quality assurance developer is more concerned about the dignity of colleagues and company culture than other types of programmers.
Executives care about less-than-play balance. They are more concerned about the importance of the work they will do, the ability to influence decisions, and more than any other type of programming: righteousness.
Priority changes with experience
When developers have more experience, decision-making and technology stack become a higher priority, so does remote work. But the more experienced developers are, the less interested they are in their job title.
In some countries, money is more important
Programmers are often paid in countries with relatively low average wages. Programmers in Northern European countries pay less attention to money than this trend indicates.
V. Devs likes to study
Once the developer is stable with a job, they want to learn and build. Indian programmers prioritize advancement over programmers in other countries.
VI. Challenges at work
Non-realistic expectations, sketchy documents, and requirements are not the most common complaints in the work of programmers. Sounds familiar?
Challenges change according to experience
Experienced programmers face other challenges with junior developers. Experienced developers are more interested in non-realistic expectations, non-specific requirements and weak code. Moreover, experienced programmers are less likely to "try to be kind."
Salary for each programming area
The average salary for programmers with more than 5+ years of experience can be considered to compare salaries between programmers with each other. But in general there is still a big gap, it is difficult to find a common motif.
Purchasing power in each country
The Big Mac Index is a reliable parameter to compare the purchasing power of programmers living in different countries. In South Africa, beer is very cheap (other consumer goods are cheap too), and the average programmer here can pay more than 25,000 Big Macs every year. Programmers with more than 5 years of experience in the US and Ukraine also have a comfortable eating life.
Salaries and housing costs in each city
Moscow housing fees are horribly high (normal programmers will have to spend more than 50% of their income if they live in the city center). The best developer is to live in Montreal, Berlin, Pune, and Bangalore – where Bangalore focuses more on Stack Overflow than any other city. Austin, Texas is the top US city where programmers don't want to pay for housing.
But if you don't pay the rent yourself, you should consider moving to California. 7 out of 10 cities with the highest average programming salary are concentrated in California State. Palo Alto tops, with an average income of $ 153,000 per year. The highest programmed city outside the US is Zurich, with the average salary for programmers with more than 5 years of experience of $ 105,000.
Salary according to company size
The average salary increases as the company expands, though many small companies pay well.
Money to buy happily buy money
In general, salary and satisfaction in work have strong connections. Money can buy happiness? Maybe in some places. It is also possible that high-wage programmers have more options and they can work where they know they can be happy.
Salary according to recruitment status
Full-time employees account for most of the programming force (about 85%), and they have a higher average salary than freelance or independence. But an independent programmer often loves work. What is the difference between independence and Freelance / Contract? About $ 10,000.
Wage by gender
There is no clear gender gap between programmers in the United States, but there seems to be considerable command for programmers over the age of 30, indicating that male programmers at this age earn get 20 thousand dollars higher than average. This distance is less clear when considering many different years of experience.
Salary according to educational level
Global participation in mentoring programs leads to higher average wages. A PhD degree is also very well paid. So don't drop out of school.
Programmers are most concentrated in Software Product. But the code is everywhere, including thousands of "other" professions (led by Insurance, Research, Tourism and Energy).
Game developers seem to like the work they do in other components. Manufacturing and financial programming tells us that they often work with legacy code. Programming protection often likes his boss.
The programming force is divided into two more, one side is the programmer for companies with less than 100 employees and companies with more than 100 employees. About 25% of developers currently work in companies with more than 1000 employees.
Programmer "lone wolf" is only in myth (or extremely rare). 96% of developers write them to work in teams. Traditional non-class programmers have the highest "solitary wolf" ratio (Quality Assurance developer is the least independent).
Women in Teams
We asked about the size of the team and how many women are in the team. The table above will show feedback from men. Analysts and Data scientist has the largest proportion of working with many women in the team. Embedded application developers and Desktop developers have the ability to work with women very low. (Additional information: Quality assurance developer has the highest number of women in the team: 2).
About 12% of programmers work full-time remotely. 30% is part-time or full-time remote.
Programmers working remotely have more experience
Developers with more years of experience 11 have twice as many teleworks as developers with less than 5 years of experience.
Remote work in the world
Programmers in Argentina often work farther than programmers in other countries.
Programmers working remotely love what they do
Remote programming often prefers to work more than other developers. Do you work from home? Would you like it? Stack Overflow has a lot of opportunities for you.
XI. Checking-in Code
57% of developers tell us, they check-in or commit code multiple times a day.
Programmed code is a happy programmer
Overall, there is a strong correlation between job satisfaction with pushing code into production. 65% of programmers who have never checked the code are satisfied with their work compared to the 77% committed code many times a day. Programmers want code!
These are programmers who help other programmers.
I. Frequency of access
More than half of programmers said they accessed Stack Overflow several times a day, and 78% of programmers said they entered Stack Overflow daily.
The vast majority of developers use Stack Overflow for help with their work. Most also use Stack Overflow because they like learning new things.
III. Ask and answer
12.3 million questions and 18.4 million answers have been posted since Stack Overflow was established in 2009. In 2015, 2.7 million questions 3.2 million responses were posted.
More than 27,000 visits have to allow us to use their user profile information. We calculated: they asked 383,445 questions and sent 2,804.051 answers. These questions and answers have helped millions of programmers. Bạn có thể là một trong số họ.
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