Ice is not always cold, it can reach temperatures in the thousands of degrees Celsius

Tram Ho

This can be said to be almost like finding ice cubes on the surface of the Sun. This type of ice with a temperature of thousands of degrees Celsius is completely different from the ice made from the freezer compartment of your refrigerator. A team of researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the US used extremely sophisticated experimental equipment to create this hot ice cube for four years.

The first step is to compress ultra-pure water with a device called a “diamond anvil cell”. This device is like a compact version of the press (because its length is less than 1 mm), and it can hold water between the diamonds without deformation. Its pressure generated can reach 2.5 billion Pascals, nearly 25,000 times the standard atmospheric pressure, causing liquid water to turn into solid ice at 25 ° C.

Băng đá không phải lúc nào cũng lạnh giá, nó có thể đạt tới nhiệt độ lên tới hàng nghìn độ C - Ảnh 1.

Diamond anvil cell.

At normal temperature, water molecules move unevenly, and their amplitude of motion increases with increasing temperature, so under normal conditions, water is liquid.

Băng đá không phải lúc nào cũng lạnh giá, nó có thể đạt tới nhiệt độ lên tới hàng nghìn độ C - Ảnh 2.

Only when the temperature drops to 0 ° C will the water molecules move slowly enough to form a stronger bond between the water molecules, thereby fixing their relative positions, thus now the water will form ice.

However, the water only freezes at 0 ° C below standard atmospheric pressure. As the pressure changes, the temperature at which the water freezes is likely to change.

Băng đá không phải lúc nào cũng lạnh giá, nó có thể đạt tới nhiệt độ lên tới hàng nghìn độ C - Ảnh 3.

The water molecules in the diamond anvil will form tighter bonds thanks to the exposure to great pressure, however, the similarity between ice formed in this way and conventional ice is limited to Appearance: The water molecules of the previous layer are more closely arranged and the density is 60% higher than that of the back layer.

But up until now, researchers have been able to make hot ice and it can be solid in high temperatures, which is also known as “ice. super ion “. The production of super ion tape requires the use of lasers, to be more precise, six lasers.

Researchers sent rock made from purified water in diamond anvil to the University of Rochester Laser Energy Laboratory (LLE), USA, and placed the entire device in the center of a sugary sphere. 3.3m glass, then place the ice between two diamonds. This intoxicating mass will be irradiated by 6 UV lasers. The irradiation lasted only 1 nanoseconds (one billionth of a second), but it was enough to generate power up to 1 trillion watts.

Băng đá không phải lúc nào cũng lạnh giá, nó có thể đạt tới nhiệt độ lên tới hàng nghìn độ C - Ảnh 4.

This enormous power is converted into a shock wave that pierces the ice sheet, and increases the pressure to compress the ice cube, so that it can withstand pressure 2 million times the atmospheric pressure. In addition to the extreme pressure, the energy provided by the laser beam will also significantly raise the ice cube’s temperature to at least 1700 ° C! This is a necessary condition for the preparation of super ion ice.

Interpretation is quite verbose, but this whole experiment can last only 20 nanoseconds, and the diamond anvil and super ion ice will evaporate almost immediately after the shock wave passes.

Therefore, researchers can only observe super ion ice for a short period of time. But they have succeeded in “seeing” the super ion ice. They also use an ultra high speed camera that can take a 1000 pixel image every 20 pico seconds. Thanks to this device, researchers have successfully discovered the secret of the super-ionic ice’s electrical conductivity. In the ultrasonic state, ice can conduct electricity!

Băng đá không phải lúc nào cũng lạnh giá, nó có thể đạt tới nhiệt độ lên tới hàng nghìn độ C - Ảnh 5.

In fact, long before this experiment could be conducted, the researchers guessed this feature because the theoretical study of the super ion ice had been carried out through computer simulation for almost 30 years.

According to the corresponding model, ice does not release electrons under these experimental conditions, but it does release the hydrogen atoms in the water molecule. More precisely, it is a hydrogen atom that has lost one electron: only protons remain, which are positively charged particles that make up the hydrogen nucleus.

Băng đá không phải lúc nào cũng lạnh giá, nó có thể đạt tới nhiệt độ lên tới hàng nghìn độ C - Ảnh 6.

To better understand this phenomenon, we need to observe this particular ice cube. At the atomic level, ice is a crystalline solid: all the molecules that make up it are arranged in a certain pattern.

As ice changes from one form to another, the arrangement of its molecules changes. When we compress them under high pressure, the molecules in their cubic structure are forced to reconstruct and shorten the distance between the molecules, so some hydrogen atoms can move between water molecules. adjacent.

This hydrogen atom abandons the original electrons during motion, thus becoming a mobile proton. In super ion ice, this phenomenon is even more pronounced: greater pressure reduces the distance between molecules, and extremely high temperatures provide a lot of energy so all protons move.

The oxygen atoms in the water molecule in this form are still arranged in the original way, but the protons are constantly moving. These positively charged particles can move slowly because of that, which is also the reason why super ionic ice can conduct electricity. In addition to confirming the theoretical predictions, preparing and observing the super-ionic ice in the laboratory will also help explain the mysteries inside Uranus and Neptune because these two planets have a host composition. Water is weak (accounting for 65% of the total volume).

Based on their size (Uranus is about 51,000 km in diameter, Neptune is about 49,000 km in diameter), physicists estimate that it only takes about 8,000 km into an extremely dense atmosphere. of these two planets will probably find super-ionic ice.

Băng đá không phải lúc nào cũng lạnh giá, nó có thể đạt tới nhiệt độ lên tới hàng nghìn độ C - Ảnh 7.

Researchers further speculate that the interior of Uranus and Neptune is a solid mantle made up of thick super-ionic ice layers. This structure could explain the extremely special magnetic fields of these two planets: they do not have two magnetic poles like the Earth, but instead have four magnetic poles.

But so far, the study just stopped at the above step and Uranus and Neptune are not made up of pure water, they also contain ammonia and methane … If these impurities are added, the efficiency of super ion ice will be like? All the answers can only wait for the time and the next experiment to answer.

Băng đá không phải lúc nào cũng lạnh giá, nó có thể đạt tới nhiệt độ lên tới hàng nghìn độ C - Ảnh 8.
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Source : Genk